rqes cover March 2024
March 2024



RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

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  March 2024 (Volume 95, Issue 1)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Referee Abuse, Intention to Quit, and Well-Being

Paul Downward, Tom Webb & Peter Dawson

There are growing levels of abuse toward match officials in sport as well as general problems of their recruitment and retention.

Purpose: This study analyzes the role that physical and nonphysical abuse has on association football referees’ intentions to quit and their personal well-being.

Methods: Drawing on pooled survey data of association football referees from the UK and Canada, this paper employs probit, ordinary least squares, and treatment effects regression analyses to explore the casual relationship between the physical and nonphysical abuse faced by referees, their intention to quit and their wellbeing.

Results: Although physical abuse is less common than nonphysical abuse both affect the intention to quit and well-being of officials. Moreover, those that do not contemplate quitting also face reductions in their well-being.

Conclusion: The research recommends a zero-tolerance approach to all forms of abuse of officials in sport and identifies that organizations have a duty of care for the well-being of their officials.


The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Biomarkers of Renal Health and Filtration in Moderate-CKD

Chronic Effects of Inter-Set Static Stretching on Morphofunctional Outcomes in Recreationally Resistance-Trained Male and Female

Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption Following Isocaloric Bouts of Resistance and Aerobic Exercise in Older Adults

Effect of High-Intensity Interval, Moderate-Intensity Continuous, and Self-Selected Intensity Training on Health and Affective Responses

Applying Unsupervised Machine Learning Models to Identify Serve Performance Related Indicators in Women’s Volleyball

Cadet and Junior Performance Is Associated With Senior’s World Championship and Olympics Achievement in Judo

Exploring How Active and Insufficiently Active Individuals Respond to Specific and Non-Specific Physical Activity Goals

Youth Sport Participation Trends Across Europe: Implications for Policy and Practice

Energy Expenditure, Intensity, and Perceived Effort in Recreational Functional Training

Are Tertiary Institutions Losing Sight of Their Duty to Cura Personalis?

The Divergent Effects of Resilience Qualities and Resilience Support in Predicting Pre-Competition Anxiety and Championship Performance

Effect of Motor Competence and Health-Related Fitness in the Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors

Current Concussion Knowledge, Beliefs, Education, and Management Practices Among Irish Post-Primary PE Teachers

NIRS-Derived Muscle-Deoxygenation and Microvascular Reactivity During Occlusion–Reperfusion at Rest Are Associated With Whole-Body Aerobic Fitness

Bilateral Force Deficit in Proximal Effectors Versus Distal Effectors in Lower Extremities

Effect of tDCS Combined With Physical Training on Physical Performance in a Healthy Population